қолданба туралы ақпарат
Academic doctors gather before the commencement exercises at Brigham Young University (April 2008).
The cover of the thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine degree (1843).
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession. There are a variety of doctoral degrees, with the most common being the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), which is awarded in many different fields, ranging from the humanities to the scientific disciplines.
In Argentina the doctorate (doctorado) is the highest academic degree. The intention is that candidates produce original contributions in their field knowledge within a frame of academic excellence. A dissertation or thesis is prepared.
Doctoral candidates are normally required to have a Master's degree in a related field. Exceptions are based on their individual academic merit.
Denmark offers four levels of degrees: 1) a three-year bachelor's degree (e.g. Bachelor of Arts degree); 2) a five-year candidate's degree (e.g. Candidatus/Candidata Magisterii), generally compared to a master's degree; 3) a ph.d. degree, which replaced the licentiate in 1988; 4) a doctor's degree.
In Egypt, the highest degree doctorate is awarded by Al-Azhar University est. 970, which grants ( ???????? Alimiyya\ Habilitation).
The Finnish requirement for the entrance into doctoral studies is a master's degree or equivalent. All universities have the right to award doctorates.
Before 1984 three research doctorates existed in France: the State doctorate (doctorat d'État, "DrE", the old doctorate introduced in 1808).
Doctorate degrees in Germany are research doctorates and are awarded via a process called Promotion ("promotion").
In India, doctorates are offered by universities. Entry requirements include master's degree.
Italy uses a three-level degree system. The first-level degree, called a "laurea" (Bachelor's degree), requires three years and a short thesis. The second-level degree, called a "laurea magistrale"
Netherlands and Flanders
The traditional academic system of the Netherlands provided basic academic diploma: propaedeuse and three academic degrees: kandidaat (the lowest degree), depending on gender doctorandus or doctoranda (drs.) (with equivalent degrees in engineering - ir. and law - mr.) and doctor (dr.).
In the Russian Empire the academic degree "doctor of the sciences" (doktor nauk) marked the highest academic degree that can be achieved by an examination. (The "doctor nauk" degree was introduced in Russia in 1819, abolished in 1917, and revived in the USSR.
History of the UK doctorate
The doctorate has long existed in the UK as, originally, the second degree in divinity, law, medicine and music. But it was not until the late 19th century that the research doctorate, now known as the higher doctorate, was introduced.
In 1861, Yale University awarded the first Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in the United States.
The structure of US doctoral programs is more formal and complex than some others. US research doctorates are awarded for successfully completing and defending independent research presented in the form of a dissertation, along with advanced study. Multiple professional degrees use the term "doctor" in their title, such as Juris Doctor and Doctor of Medicine, but these degrees do not always contain an independent research component or always require a dissertation and should not be confused with Ph.D./D.Phil./Ed.D./D.Ed. degrees or other research doctorates.
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